National Forest Status Summary
RFO-SEA aims at providing information, tables and figures on the forest status in each country covered by the Observatory based on the latest national official data or the best available dataset. This section informs on the forest definition, the various forest types, the historical forest cover change trend. It also provides information on the REDD+ programs implementation at national level.
Click on the country name and one sub section below the name.
State of the Forest – National Summary
Kingdom of Cambodia
Cambodia

Capital: Phnom Penh

Area: 181,606.7 km²

Population: 15,760,000 (2016)

ASEAN Member since 1999

Annual population growth: 1.6%

VietNam
Forest Definition
Forest is the unit of the natural ecosystem or plantation in the forms of wetland, low land and dry land which covers by natural stands or plantation trees with a height from 5 meters on an area of at least 0.5 ha with a canopy of more than 10 %
Only for REDD+, programme, the rubber, oil palm and perennial crops are excluded from this definition
Forest Area
Total Forest Cover (2014) 8,518,173 ha
46.9 %
Forest Cover Change Trend
DECREASE

Forest area
2010: 10,451,912 ha

2010-2014:
- 483,435 ha/year

2010-2014:
- 4.6 %/year
Cambodia
Change of forest cover from 2006 to 2014 excluding rubber and oil palm
plantation as in the definition for REDD+
VietNam
Deciduous forest in Mondulkiri province. Source: FA, 2016
Classification System - Forest Types
While the current forest cover is still relatively high, Cambodia lost a considerable amount of forest over the last two decades, and the pace of land use and forest conversion has seen acceleration. Deforestation is caused by the rapid pace of development in the country, including large scale agro-industrial development, and a lack of effective implementation of existing laws and policies for forest land and forest resource management.
Cambodia’s forest area is governed by three institutions:
Forestry Administration (FA) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries,
Fisheries Administration (FiA) of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF),
General Department of Administration for Nature Conservation and Protection (GDANCP) of the Ministry of Environment (MoE).
Recent jurisdictional changes in 2016 and 2017 have transferred all protected areas plus additional areas designated as Biodiversity Conservation Corridors from the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) to the Ministry of Environment (MoE), while Economic Land Concessions previously under MoE have been transferred to MAFF. More than four million ha have been transferred between the two ministries. Registration and demarcation in the field have yet to be done.
IPCC Land Use Categories Land Use/Cover Categories
Forest Evergreen forest
Semi-evergreen forest
Deciduous forest
Pine trees
Pine plantation
Tree plantation
Mangrove forest
Rear mangrove
Flooded forest
Bamboo
Crop land Rubber plantation
Oil palm
Paddy field
Crop land
Grassland Grassland
Wood shrub
Wetlands Water
Settlements Built-up area
Village
Other Rock
Sand
Emission factors in Cambodia
Forest type AGB (tC/ha)
Evergreen forest 76.59
Semi-evergreen 114.21
Deciduous 39.95
Forest regrowth 35.25
Flooded 32.9
Plantation 47.00
Pine plantation 47.00
Mangrove 70.50
Rear Mangrove 77.55
Forest Cover and land use statistics in 2006, 2010 and 2014
Classification 2006 2010 2014
Ha % Ha % Ha %
Evergreen Forest 3710271 20.43 3573925 19.68 2973903 16.38
Semi-evergreen forest 1453441 8 1391117 7.66 1108320 6.1
Deciduous Forest 4613417 25.4 4498397 24.77 3480532 19.17
Flooded Forest 597355 3.29 524005 2.89 481078 2.65
Forest Regrowth 216123 1.19 249341 1.37 228560 1.26
Bamboo 129837 0.72 130930 0.72 130678 0.72
Mangrove 32060 0.18 31443 0.17 33002 0.18
Rear Mangrove 27519 0.15 27371 0.15 25906 0.14
Pine Forest 8157 0.04 8157 0.04 8196 0.05
Pine Plantation 0 0 11 0 3709 0.02
Tree Plantation 43547 0.24 17214 0.09 44289 0.24
Forest Area 10837260 59.64% 10451911 57.55% 8518173 46.90%
Oil Palm Plantation 35 0 5055 0.03 36311 0.2
Rubber Plantation 78148 0.43 137307 0.76 484316 2.67
Grassland 600006 3.30 473281 2.61 351337 1.93
Agriculture 1000634 5.51 1275444 7.02 2787413 15.35
Paddy Filed 3668981 20.2 3859452 21.25 4133474 22.76
Rock 219 0 668 0 2054 0.01
Sand 8304 0.05 10459 0.06 40581 0.22
Built up area 37435 0.21 43800 0.24 328820 1.81
Village 248126 1.37 296513 1.63 42166 0.23
Water 438410 2.41 458658 2.53 813839 4.48
Wood shrub 1248649 6.88 1148126 6.32 622190 3.43
Non Forest 7328947 40.36 7708763 42.45 9642501 53.1
Total Area 18160674 100 18160674 100 18160674 100
State of the Forest – National Summary
Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Cambodia

Capital: Vientiane

Area: 237,955 km²

Population: 6,758,000 (2016)

ASEAN Member since 1997

Annual population growth: 1.5%

Laos
Forest Definition
Forest Current Forest means the natural forest and forest plantation which having a tree cover with a crown density of at least 20 %, the area more than 0.5 ha, and DBH more than 10 cm.
Forest Area
Forest land (Current forest and potential forest): 19,531,889 ha
Current Forest (2015) 13,369,408 ha
Potential Forest (2015) 6,162,481 ha
Forest land: 84.7 %
Current forest: 58 %
Potential Forest: 26.7 %
Forest Cover Change Trend
DECREASE

Current Forest area
2005: 13,875,422 ha

2005-2015:
- 50,601 ha/year

2005-2015:
- 0.4 %/year
VietNam
Evergreen Forest in Phou Chom Voi Provincial Protected Area. JF 2014.
Classification System - Forest Types
VietNam
UC and RV are predominately considered to be stages of the shifting cultivation cycle, and these lands are considered to re-grow and recover through natural vegetative succession. Through intensive discussions within DOF and with stakeholders on whether to classify these under the IPCC land use category of “Forest Land” or “Cropland”, it was concluded that for the purpose of REDD+, in line with the IPCC definition, to classify RV as “Forest Land” as it they are “…vegetation that currently fall below, but are expected to exceed, the threshold of forest land category.” (IPCC, 2003) and classify UC as “Cropland” as they are used, even temporarily, for cropping at the time of mapping.
Stratification of land cover classes
VietNam
Historical Stratum area
VietNam
Carbon Stock (AGB and BGB)
VietNam
Allometric equation to calculate tree AGB
VietNam
State of the Forest – National Summary
Myanmar
Myanmar

Capital: Nay Pyi Taw

Area: 676,578 km²

Population: 51,486,253 (2014)

ASEAN Member since 1997

Annual population growth: 0.9%

Laos
Forest Definition
Myanmar uses FAO definition
Forest Area
Total Forest Cover (2014) 42,365,729 ha

Source:ECODEV-ALARM, 2016

63 %
Forest Cover Change Trend
DECREASE

Current Forest area
2002: 43,962,183 ha

2002-2014:
- 133,038 ha/year

2002-2014:
- 0.3 %/year
Source: ECODEV-ALARM, 2016.
Classification System - Forest Types
The Ministry of Environmental Conservation and Forestry (MoECAF) is responsible for managing all forestlands in the country including the Permanent Forest Estate (PFE) and Public Forests. MoECAF develops the forest policy and legal frameworks and coordinates Climate Change related policy analysis and development.
New and rapid political and economic changes in Myanmar are increasing the pressures on the country’s forests..
With a forest cover of 42,365,729 ha or 63% of the country, Myanmar still maintains substantial forest cover compared to other Southeast Asian countries, However, only 38% of these forests can be considered intact (meaning forest that has a canopy cover greater than 80%).
Between 2002 and 2014, intact forests declined at a rate of 0.94% annually, totaling more than 2 million ha of forest loss. Losses can be extremely high locally, such as townships that are hotspots of intact forest loss. (Shan, Sagaing, Kachin, Tanintharyi).
Country-wide forest cover change in Myanmar between 2002 and 2014
Land Cover Class 2002 2014 Overall 2002 to 2014
Forest Cover Change
Annual Net
Change
ha % ha % ha % %
Forest* 43,962,183 65.71 42,365,729 63.32 -1,596,454 -3.63 -0.3
Intact 18,260,940 27.29 16,192,952 24.2 -2,067,988 -11.32 -0.94
Degraded 25,701,243 38.41 26,172,777 39.12 471.53 1.83 0.15
Non-Forest 21,134,373 31.59 22,122,214 33.06 987.84 4.67 0.39
Plantation 917,361 1.37 1,453,199 2.17 535.84 58.41 4.87
Water 785,337 1.17 858112 1.28 72.70 9.25 0.77
Snow/Ice 108,684 0.16 108,684 0.16 0 0 0
(*) Sum of Intact and Degraded Forests
Source: ECODEV-ALARM 2016
State of the Forest – National Summary
Kingdom of Thailand
Myanmar

Capital: Bangkok

Area: 517,646 km²

Population: 68,860,000 (2016)

ASEAN Member since 1967

Annual population growth: 0.3%

Laos
Forest Definition
Thailand uses FAO definition
Forest Area
Total Forest Cover (2015) 16,347,969 ha

Source: Department of Natural Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation-2016

31.6 %
Forest Cover Change Trend
INCREASE

Forest area
2005: 16,100,000 ha
2015: 16,399,000 ha

Source: FRA - FAO, 2015.


2005-2015:
+ 29,900 ha/year

2005-2015:
+ 0.19 %/year
Source: Department of Natural Parks, Wildlife and Plant Conservation-2016.
Classification System - Forest Types
In Thailand, the Department of National Park, Wildlife, and Plant Conservation (DNP) is responsible for resources assessment and monitoring within protected areas while the Royal Forest Department is responsible for reserved forests outside protected areas.
The Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment (MNRE), Thailand has ultimate responsibility for all state forest lands.
It is the main policy making body for forestry and forest conservation in Thailand. Institutions directly responsible for forestry are:
  1. Royal Forest Department (RFD) is responsible for reserved forests outside protected areas.
  2. The Department of National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation (DNP) is responsible for forest Protected Areas.
  3. Department of Marine and Coastal Resources (DMCR) is responsible for mangrove forests.
  4. The Forest Industry Organization (FIO) is in charge of forest plantations
In addition, the following central level departments/agencies under MNRE may be involved in forest related issues:
Office of Natural Resources and Environment Policy and Planning (ONEP) develops the natural resources and environmental enhancement and conservation management plan and policy.
Pollution Control Department (PCD) regulates supervises, directs, co-ordinates, monitors and evaluates rehabilitation, protection and conservation of environment quality.
Department of Environment Quality Promotion (DEQP) carries out research, development training, public awareness, development of environment technology, natural resources and environment.
Forest Types in Thailand
Tropical Evergreen Forest
Semi Evergreen Forest
Hill Evergreen Forest
Pine Forest
Mangrove Forest
Beach Forest
Mixed Deciduous Forest
Dry Dipterocarp Forest
Forest Plantation
Historical forest cover in Thailand
Region Area (ha) Forest Area (ha) %
Central 9,106,023 1,920,148 21.09
North-East 16,771,793 2,503,651 14.93
East 3,448,141 753,182 21.84
West 5,446,113 3,214,601 59.03
South 7,384,784 1,772,293 24.00
North 9,607,735 6,184,091 64.37
Total 51,764,592 16,347,969 31.58
State of the Forest – National Summary
Socialist Republic of Vietnam
VietNam

Capital: Hanoi

Area: 331,230.8 km²

Population: 92,700,000 (2016)

ASEAN Member since 1995

Annual population growth: 1.1%

VietNam
Forest Definition
A forest is an area of at least 0.5 ha,
with a canopy cover of 10% and with trees that reach more than 5 meters height
Forest Area
Total Forest Cover (2016): 13,631,934 ha
41.19%
Total Forest:
14,377,682 ha
Source: NFI
Natural Forest
10,242,141 ha
Source: NFI
Plantation Forest (include young plantations that do not reach forest cover definition)
4,135,541 ha
Source: NFI
Forest Cover Change Trend
INCREASE
Forest area
2000: 11,939,000 ha
2010: 13,661,000 ha

2000-2010:
+ 312,200 ha/year

2000-2010:
+ 3%/year
VietNam
Source: Acacia plantations surrounding tea and rice fields in Dak Lak province. Photo credit: Dung Pham/SRI
Classification System - Forest Types
The forest in Vietnam is managed by the Vietnamese Forestry Administration (VNFOREST), which is under the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development (MARD).
The overall national forest cover increases due mostly by the development of commercial plantations (Acacia, Eucalyptus, Pine, Rubber). However deforestation still occurs at high rate like in Central Highland region.
Currently, the main direct causes of deforestation are generally agreed to be: (i) conversion to agriculture (particularly to industrial perennial crops); (ii) unsustainable logging (notably illegal logging); (iii) infrastructure development; and (iv) forest fires.
Forest types in Vietnam are categorized into three types: Special-use Forest, Protection Forest and Production Forest.
To monitor forest cover change, the Forest Inventory and Planning Institute (FIPI) produced the NFI maps (National Forest Inventory) for years 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010. To support the REDD+ national strategy these maps have been revised by JICA and UN-REDD.
The NFIS: National Forest Inventory and Statistics will be completed by 2017. NFIS is implemented by various institutions: FIPI (Forest Inventory and Planning Institute, VAFS (Vietnamese Academy of Forestry Science and VNFU (Vietnamese National Forestry University).
Forest type and other land cover
Evergreen broadleaf forest - rich
Evergreen broadleaf forest - medium
Evergreen broadleaf forest - poor
Regrowth forest
Deciduous forest
Mixed wood and bamboo forest
Coniferous forest
Mixed broadleaf and coniferous forest
Mangrove forest
Forest on rocky mountain
Plantation forest
Rocky mountain without forest
Barren land planned for forestry
Water
Residential area
Other land
REDD+ Status
Viet Nam indicated its interest in REDD to the UNFCCC Secretariat in February 2008. Viet Nam is one of nine countries initially identified for country programming under UN-REDD Programme which started in 2009. It was also one of the first countries to receive approval for a Readiness Project Identification Note (R-PIN) under the World Bank’s Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF).
The National REDD+ office was established in 2011 to coordinate and manage the process of developing tools to implement Viet Nam’s National REDD+ Program.
UN-REDD is in its phase II. The NRAP (National REDD+ Action Plan) was adopted by the government in April 2017.
In regards with FCPF, the ER-PD (Emission Reductions Program Document) was submitted in November 2016 and includes 6 provinces (Thanh Hoa, Nghe An, Ha Tinh, Quang Binh, Quang Tri, Thua Thien Hue).
UN-REDD Programme Partner Country: YES
Type of UN-REDD Programme Support Received : National Programme, Targeted support, Tier 2.
Forest Carbon Partnership Facility (FCPF): YES
World Bank - Carbon Fund
National average carbon stocks AGB + BGB (tC/ha) per forest type - Cycle IV 2005-2010
Code Forest Type Carbon Stock Uncertainty (at CI 95%)
1 Evergreen broadleaf rich 140 3
8 Coniferous 95 11
2 Evergreen broadleaf medium 75 1
9 Mixed broadleaf-coniferous 67 45
10 Mangrove 58 -
7 Mixed wood and bamboo 42 7
3 Evergreen broadleaf poor 32 3
5 Deciduous Forest 31 8
4 Evergreen broadleaf regrowth 26 6
11 Limestone forest 19 83
12 Plantation 16 13
6 Bamboo 15 11
Historical Forest cover in Vietnam
National Forest Inventory (NFI)
Four Cycle Maps
Forest and Other Land Cover Area (1,000 ha) 1995 2000 2005 2010
Broadleaved Rich forest 856 804 693 681
Broadleaved medium forest 2004 1889 1783 1674
Broadleaved poor forest 1918 1785 1621 1581
Broadleaved regrowth forest 2399 2699 3283 3654
Deciduous forest 751 722 665 646
Bamboo forest 526 547 490 441
Mixed woody and bamboo forest 734 751 751 748
Coniferous forest 172 177 164 162
Mixed woody and coniferous forest 64 56 54 53
Mangrove forest 199 178 134 142
Rocky mountain forest 740 749 759 757
Woody plantation 994 1582 2343 3122
Non-forest rock 232 224 207 205
Bushes and grass land 7748 7039 6042 4688
Water body 824 846 851 870
Residential area 1498 1569 1669 1798
Agriculture land, other land 11356 11399 11507 11796
Total 33015 33016 33016 33018
Summary
Forest 11357 11939 12740 13661
Natural Forest 10363 10357 10397 10539
Forest Plantations 994 1582 2343 3122
Bare Land 7980 7263 6249 4893
Agriculture and other land 13678 13814 14027 14464
Total 33015 33016 33016 33018
National Forest Inventory and Statistics (NFIS)
2016
703
1831
1510
3119
576
363
1165
123
65
61
903
3939
75
2318
66
a
16200
33018
Summary
14359
10420
3939
2392
16266
33018
Allometric Equation
Activities were implemented as a series of work undertaken through the UN-REDD Programme for Vietnam with technical assistance from FAO, towards the improvement of country-specific emission factors for Viet Nam.
These activities were conducted by five national institutes and organization, namely, Forest Inventory and Planning Institute (FIPI), North-west Sub-FIPI, Center for Forest Inventory and Consultancy (CFIC), Viet Nam Forestry University (VFU), Tay Nguyen University (TNU), and the Research Center for Forest Ecology and Environment (RCFEE, under VAFS) as coordinator.
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